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Drug Targets Identified More Discerningly

Experimental drugs face steep odds. According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), out of every 5,000 to 10,000 compounds that enter the discovery and development pipeline, just 5 enter clinical trials, and only 1 receives approval. Other sources suggest that 12–16% of drugs that reach clinical trials eventually reach the market.

Besides having a high attrition rate, the discovery and development process is lengthy and costly. “On average, it takes 10–15 years for a new medicine to complete the journey from initial discovery to the marketplace,” PhRMA notes. “The average R&D investment for each new medicine is $1.2 billion, including the cost of failures.”

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